STAR GAZER
THE INTERNATIONAL EDITION



STAR GAZER is seen nationally on most PBS stations. There is a five minute and a one minute version available each week. If it is not currently on your PBS station we suggest you contact your local PBS programming director and let them know it is available free to all PBS stations. You may take STAR GAZER off satellite for personal use, classroom use, astronomy club use, etc. without written permission.

Satellite feed info:

GE 3 - PBS Transponder 512

4/26/99 10:30 - 11:30 am Eastern time (5 shows)

5/27/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)

6/25/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)


Star Gazer is also available from

NASA CORE

A videotape of the current month is available from NASA CORE for $16.00

plus $6.00 shipping (within the U.S). Please send a VISA, MasterCard,

check, money order or an official school purchase order to the address

below:

 

Lorain County JVS - NASA CORE

15181 Route 58 South

Oberlin, OH 44074

440/775-1400

FAX 440/775-1460

nasaco@leeca.esu.k12.oh.us

http://spacelink.nasa.gov/CORE

 

Notice : These are working drafts of the scripts for STAR GAZER.
Changes may well be made as production requires.


STAR GAZER

Episode # 99-18

1117th Show

To Be Aired : Monday 5/3/99 through Sunday 5/9/99

"A Super Close Up Look At Mars

Which Is Still At Its Brightest Since 1990!"


Greetings! Greetings! Fellow stargazers and yes indeed, the planet Mars is still at its closest and brightest since 1990 and you should take a look at it in the next two weeks before it starts rapidly dimming. To find it simply go outside any clear night and from sunset to 10 p.m. You'll see it shining a bright orangeish/ pumpkin color in the southeast. Between 10 and 2 it will be very high up in the south and from 2 until sunrise it will slowly descend toward the southwest. Now if you know any person or astronomy club with a telescope this is the time to look at Mars.

However, if you don't then you can travel in imagination to Mars through the incredible close up photographs taken by robot space craft. Let me show you: O.K., as we approach Mars some prominent features immediately stand out, the first of which is a giant gash which we call the Valley of Mariner, but which in reality is a grand canyon as long as the United States is wide. Wow! My 4 favorite features however are 3 bumps lined up in a row up and to the left of the Valley of Mariner and a greater bump up and to their left. In reality, the 3 bumps in a row are 3 humongous volcanoes named Arsia Mons, Pavonis Mons and Ascraeous Mons. Personally however I call them the 3 sisters because they're so neatly spaced in a row, like the 3 stars in Orion's belt. But even more humongous is the bump to their upper left, Olympus Mons, the Mount Olympus of Mars which I personally call the big brother.

And it is a big brother to the 3 sisters because it is so huge that if we could plunk it down on top of the U.S. it would cover 3/4 of the states of Oregon and Washington combined, although the 3 sisters are no slouches either when it comes to covering U.S. territory. Olympus Mons is the volcano champion of all the planets for its base is almost 400 miles wide and its 15 mile high peak is over twice as high as any 747's fly. Its 50 mile wide crater is so huge that we could fit the cities of New York, Washington and Philadelphia inside it. Talk about urban sprawl!

At any rate even though a small telescope won't show you Olympus Mons, the big brother and the 3 sisters of the Valley of Mariner, nevertheless as you gaze up at Mars over the next couple of weeks you can see all these wonderful features in your mind's eye and at the same time remind yourself that less than 30 years ago we didn't even know that Mariner Valley, Olympus Mons and the 3 sisters even existed. Indeed, keep in mind as you gaze at Mars that what you are seeing is exactly what our ancestors have seen for thousands of years whenever Mars comes close to Earth and shines a bright orange beacon as it is doing now. But also see in your mind the reality of Mars as we now know it which is truly wonderful if you just use your imagination as you Keep Looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here


Star Gazer Minute

#99-18 M

5/3/99 thru 5/9/99

"A Close Up Look At Mars"

 

Greetings, I'm Jack Horkheimer with this week's "Star Gazer Minute". This week Mars is still at its closest and brightest since 1990. So go out an hour after sunset and look for a bright orangeish light shining in the southeast. Now while we see it just the way our ancestors saw it for thousands of years, nevertheless only in the past 30 years have we seen it close up for the first time. A world with a grand canyon so long it could stretch from one side of the U.S. to the other, and with a volcano so huge it would cover the state of Georgia. A volcano 15 miles high with a 50 mile wide crater so big we could fit New York, Washington and Philadelphia inside it. Talk about urban sprawl! Whatever, just Keep Looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here


Don't miss the cartoon version of

'STAR GAZER' in each monthly issue of

 

To Subscribe

(only $26.95 for 9 issues)

contact

'ODYSSEY'

30 Grove Street

Suite C

Peterborough, NH 03458

or Click Here


* This week's Sky At A Glance and Planet Roundup from Sky & Telescope.
This week's Sky At A Glance displays current week only.

Starry Night Deluxe was used to produce this episode of Star Gazer






 


STAR GAZER
THE INTERNATIONAL EDITION



STAR GAZER is seen nationally on most PBS stations. There is a five minute and a one minute version available each week. If it is not currently on your PBS station we suggest you contact your local PBS programming director and let them know it is available free to all PBS stations. You may take STAR GAZER off satellite for personal use, classroom use, astronomy club use, etc. without written permission.

Satellite feed info:

GE 3 - PBS Transponder 512

4/26/99 10:30 - 11:30 am Eastern time (5 shows)

5/27/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)

6/25/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)


 

Star Gazer is also available from

NASA CORE

A videotape of the current month is available from NASA CORE for $16.00

plus $6.00 shipping (within the U.S). Please send a VISA, MasterCard,

check, money order or an official school purchase order to the address

below:

 

Lorain County JVS - NASA CORE

15181 Route 58 South

Oberlin, OH 44074

440/775-1400

FAX 440/775-1460

nasaco@leeca.esu.k12.oh.us

http://spacelink.nasa.gov/CORE





Notice : These are working drafts of the scripts for STAR GAZER.
Changes may well be made as production requires.


 

STAR GAZER

Episode #99-19


1118th Show

To Be Aired : Monday 5/10/99 through Sunday 5/16/99

"Venus, Earth's Twin Sister,

Takes Over Evening Skies"


Greetings, greetings fellow stargazers. If last month was called "Mars Month" this month should be called "Venus Month" because this month Venus is at its highest above the evening horizon for 1999 and is visible for over 3 hours after sunset, plus it will have an exquisite meeting with the crescent Moon on the 18th and will also form a wonderful triangle with the Gemini Twins on the 21st and 22nd. Let me show you: O.K., we've got our skies set up for any clear night this month just after sunset and if you look to the west you cannot fail to see Venus because it will be the brightest thing in the sky other than the Sun and the Moon.

Now even though throughout history it has been referred to as both the Evening Star and the Morning Star, it is not a star at all. It is a planet which, until recently was often called the twin sister of Earth. You see if we could place Venus and our Earth side by side they would appear to be almost the same size approximately 8 thousand miles wide. And during the first half of this century many astronomers thought that Venus was the planet most likely to have life forms other than our planet Earth. But during the last 50 years we've discovered such is not the case.

You see, even with our best telescopes we cannot see any surface features on Venus because it is completely covered with a dense layer of clouds. In fact, sunlight bouncing off these bright clouds is what makes Venus appear so incredibly bright. But these clouds are not hospitable to life as we know it because they trap incoming energy from the Sun and raise temperatures on Venus' surface to over 900 degrees Fahrenheit, and Venus' atmosphere is so heavy that any spacecraft that has landed on Venus has been squashed flatter than a pancake in just a few hours. And when it rains on Venus no umbrella is going to help you because on Venus it rains sulphuric acid. So the only way we can still think of Venus as Earth's twin sister is its size.

But its beauty still captures our imaginations as it has most human beings throughout recorded history, especially whenever a crescent Moon comes near it. Indeed the sight will knock you socks off. So go out at dusk Sunday night, May 16th and you will see a very young crescent Moon close to the west/northwest horizon well below Venus. Then if you go out Monday the 17th, about an hour after sunset you will see a slightly fatter crescent Moon almost directly beneath Venus. But the next night, Tuesday the 18th will be absolutely exquisite when an even bigger crescent Moon will be almost side by side with our twin sister. Wow! Now on Friday night the 21st and Saturday night the 22nd, which is National Astronomy Day, Venus will form a marvelous isoceles triangle with the Gemini twins Pollux and Castor. One again: Sunday May 16th, Monday May 17th, Tuesday the 18th, and on the 21st and 22nd a cosmic triangle. May is Venus Month indeed! If you remember to Keep Looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here


Star Gazer Minute

#99-19 M

5/10/99 thru 5/16/99

"May Is The Month of Venus!"

 

Horkheimer:Greetings, I'm Jack Horkheimer with this week's "Star Gazer Minute". This month should be called "Venus Month" because this month Venus is at its highest above the evening horizon for 1999. Go out any clear night an hour after sunset, look west and there you'll see it, brighter than anything in the sky other than our Sun and Moon. And you can watch the Moon create an incredible cosmic picture with Venus Monday night the 17th and Tuesday the 18th. Then on National Astronomy Day, Saturday the 22nd, Venus will form an almost perfect triangle with the two brightest stars of Gemini, Pollux and Castor. My pick of the week however is Tuesday the 18th when Venus and the Moon will knock your socks off if you Keep Looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here


Don't miss the cartoon version of

'STAR GAZER' in each monthly issue of

 

To Subscribe

(only $26.95 for 9 issues)

contact

'ODYSSEY'

30 Grove Street

Suite C

Peterborough, NH 03458

or Click Here




 
* This week's Sky At A Glance and Planet Roundup from Sky & Telescope.

This week's Sky At A Glance displays current week only.


Starry Night Deluxe was used to produce this episode of Star Gazer






STAR GAZER
THE INTERNATIONAL EDITION




STAR GAZER is seen nationally on most PBS stations. There is a five minute and a one minute version available each week. If it is not currently on your PBS station we suggest you contact your local PBS programming director and let them know it is available free to all PBS stations. You may take STAR GAZER off satellite for personal use, classroom use, astronomy club use, etc. without written permission.

Satellite feed info:

GE 3 - PBS Transponder 512

4/26/99 10:30 - 11:30 am Eastern time (5 shows)

5/27/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)

6/25/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)


Star Gazer is also available from

NASA CORE

A videotape of the current month is available from NASA CORE for $16.00

plus $6.00 shipping (within the U.S). Please send a VISA, MasterCard,

check, money order or an official school purchase order to the address

below:

 

Lorain County JVS - NASA CORE

15181 Route 58 South

Oberlin, OH 44074

440/775-1400

FAX 440/775-1460

nasaco@leeca.esu.k12.oh.us

http://spacelink.nasa.gov/CORE




Notice : These are working drafts of the scripts for STAR GAZER.
Changes may well be made as production requires.



STAR GAZER

Episode # 99-20


1119th Show


To Be Aired : Monday 5/17/99 through Sunday 5/23/99

"How To Find Virgo

and Its Brightest Star Spica"
 

Horkheimer: Greetings, greetings, fellow star gazers, and as most amateur star gazers soon learn, the best way to find stars is by using signposts in the sky, some of which are permanent and many of which rapidly change. Let me show you: O.K., we've got our skies set up for any clear night about 1 to 2 hours after sunset this week, facing north where you'll easily see 7 bright stars which make up the Big Dipper and if you simply shoot an arrow through the handle of the Big Dipper, following that same gentle curve you will arc to the bright star Arcturus, then if you continue that curved arrow you will speed on to Spica. This my friends is really the permanent signpost way to find Spica, The Big Dipper handle way. Arc to Arcturus, speed on to Spica.

Now the reason I mentioned this way to find Spica in a couple of recent episodes was simply as a device to help you find Mars which is still extremely bright because as you may recall, once you get to Spica I told you to move over to Mars which makes Spica a temporary signpost to find Mars, or vice versa. And as you may recall, when I first mentioned how to find Mars using Spica about 2 months ago Mars was very far away from Spica. This week however, Mars is only 3 degrees away and closing. In fact, this week on Tuesday night the 25th another signpost will appear in the sky to help you find Mars and Spica, and that is a lovely Moon at which time you will notice that Mars has moved even closer to Spica. On Wednesday night the 26th an even bigger Moon will have moved just past Mars and Spica and will make another lovely picture. Now throughout the first two weeks of June Mars and Spica will remain within 2 degrees of each other so you will have several nights to compare the 2 side by side.

But Mars is rapidly dimming although it still much brighter than Spica. And although Mars is the visual beauty, Spica is the real wonder. Historically many civilizations have called Spica by many different names. It is said that the great pharaoh Akhenaten used Spica as a tribute to his wife, the exquisite Nefertiti. In Babylon Spica was identified with Ishtar, and in India the mother of Krishna. The Saxons called Spica, Eostre, which is where we get our word Easter. And in the middle ages many Christians called this star The Madonna. But what ever Spica's mythology its reality overshadows everything for we now know that Spica is a giant hot blue star, over twice the diameter of our Sun and over two thousand times brighter. But the real mind blower is that it is really a double star, the companion star being about the same size as our Sun, and the two of them are so close they almost touch each other and incredibly they orbit each other once every 4 days. Compare that to 4 thousand mile wide Mars which in one of the grand optical illusions of nature appears at this time to be side by side with Spica, both of them just waiting for you to Keep Looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here

 


Star Gazer Minute

#99-20 M

5/17/99 thru 5/23/99

"How to Find Virgo's Brightest Star"

 

Greetings, I'm Jack Horkheimer with this week's "Star Gazer Minute". You know since Mars is so incredibly bright right now you can use it to find a wonderful star. Simply go out any clear night the next couple of weeks, a couple of hours after sunset, look toward the southeast and there you'll see brilliant orangeish Mars and right next to it Spica, the brightest star of Virgo. Now although they appear to be side by side it is only an optical illusion because whereas Mars is a very close 4 thousand mile wide planet, very distant Spica is really two stars, one a million miles wide, the other, 2 million, shining with the brilliance of over 2 thousand Suns and so close they orbit each other once every 4 days. The night sky is truly amazing, so Keep looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here


Don't miss the cartoon version of

'STAR GAZER' in each monthly issue of

 

To Subscribe

(only $26.95 for 9 issues)

contact

'ODYSSEY'

30 Grove Street

Suite C

Peterborough, NH 03458

or Click Here


* This week's Sky At A Glance and Planet Roundup from Sky & Telescope.
This week's Sky At A Glance displays current week only.

Starry Night Deluxe was used to produce this episode of Star Gazer






STAR GAZER
THE INTERNATIONAL EDITION




STAR GAZER is seen nationally on most PBS stations. There is a five minute and a one minute version available each week. If it is not currently on your PBS station we suggest you contact your local PBS programming director and let them know it is available free to all PBS stations. You may take STAR GAZER off satellite for personal use, classroom use, astronomy club use, etc. without written permission.

Satellite feed info:

GE 3 - PBS Transponder 512

4/26/99 10:30 - 11:30 am Eastern time (5 shows)

5/27/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)

6/25/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)


Star Gazer is also available from NASA CORE

A videotape of the current month is available from NASA CORE for $16.00

plus $6.00 shipping (within the U.S). Please send a VISA, MasterCard,

check, money order or an official school purchase order to the address

below:

 

Lorain County JVS - NASA CORE

15181 Route 58 South

Oberlin, OH 44074

440/775-1400

FAX 440/775-1460

nasaco@leeca.esu.k12.oh.us

http://spacelink.nasa.gov/CORE



Notice : These are working drafts of the scripts for STAR GAZER.
Changes may well be made as production requires.


 

 

STAR GAZER

Episode #99-21


1120th Show



To Be Aired : Monday 5/24/99 through Sunday 5/30/99

"The Gemini Twins and The Goddess of Love

and The Smallest Full Moon of the Year."

Horkheimer: Greetings, greetings, fellow star gazers, and in case you think this Sunday night's May 30th full Moon looks smaller than usual, you're absolutely right because the full Moon this Sunday night will be the most distant full Moon of 1999 and will be 31 thousand miles farther away and 15% smaller than the closest full Moon of 1999 which will occur on on December 22nd. But now to things even more distant than the most distant full Moon. O.K., we've got our skies set up for this past weekend, Friday and Saturday, May 21st and 22nd just after sunset facing west/northwest where I'm sure many of you had an opportunity to see Venus form an exquisite triangle with the two brightest stars of Gemini, the stars Pollux and Castor.

Now if you go outside every night this week until about 3 hours after sunset you'll see Venus slowly climb higher and higher toward Pollux and Castor so that by Tuesday June 1st Venus will be almost in a straight line with Pollux and Castor and will move only slightly upward of Pollux over the next few nights. So might I suggest a few viewing tips for the next couple of weeks. Simply remember that Venus is as Earth-sized 8 thousand mile wide planet only 75 million miles away from us right now whereas Pollux and Castor are stars, both humongously bigger than Venus and both many light years beyond.

Let's start with Pollux first. Now I've always had a problem keeping Pollux and Castor straight as to which one is the brighter, but very recently I figured out an easy way to remember which is which. You see in mythology Castor was a horseman whereas Pollux was a boxer, a pugilist, so now I simply say to my self that Pollux the pugilist has a lot more punch in brightness than Castor. And if you can just remember that, I don't think you'll ever get the two of them confused. At any rate, Pollux the pugilist, is 11 times the diameter of our own Sun and is about 40 light years away but even though it is bigger and brighter than Castor, Castor takes the celestial whopper prize because Castor is not just one star but is in reality 6 stars all spinning in an intricate cosmic waltz like 3 stellar couples. Now while none of Castor's stars are as big as Pollux, Pair A is twice the diameter of our Sun and pair B is 1 1/2 times our Sun's diameter, leaving pair C to be the only two smaller than our own star, about 3 quarters our Sun's size, and all of then are a whopping 50 light years away.

Just imagine. As you look up any clear night the next couple of weeks 1 to 3 hours after sunset, you will be treated to a grand cosmic illusion from a dazzling brilliant close by 8 thousand mile wide planet to the legendary Gemini twins. Bright Pollux, so huge that 11 of our Suns could be lined up side by side across its middle and its brother Castor, in reality not one star but a complex system of 3 double stars waltzing endlessly in the great beyond. Is it any wonder that I always that I always remind you to Keep Looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here


Star Gazer Minute

#99-21 M

5/24/99 thru 5/30/99

"Venus and The Gemini Twins,

and The Smallest Full Moon of the Year"

 

Greetings, I'm Jack Horkheimer with this week's "Star Gazer Minute". If you think this Sunday night's full Moon looks smaller than usual you're right because it will be the most distant full Moon of the year, 31 thousand miles farther away and 15% smaller than the closest full Moon on December 22nd. But to see something even more distant, go out any night this week an hour after sunset, look west and you'll see brilliant 8 thousand mile wide planet Venus slowly climb the heavens until it is side by side with the brightest stars of Gemini, Pollux and Castor. Pollux a whopping 11 times the diameter of our own Sun; and Castor, in reality not a single star but 3 double stars waltzing endlessly 50 light years beyond. Just remember to Keep Looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here

 


Don't miss the cartoon version of

'STAR GAZER' in each monthly issue of

 

To Subscribe

(only $26.95 for 9 issues)

contact

'ODYSSEY'

30 Grove Street

Suite C

Peterborough, NH 03458

or Click Here


* This week's Sky At A Glance and Planet Roundup from Sky & Telescope.
This week's Sky At A Glance displays current week only
Starry Night Deluxe was used to produce this episode of Star Gazer





STAR GAZER
THE INTERNATIONAL EDITION




STAR GAZER is seen nationally on most PBS stations. There is a five minute and a one minute version available each week. If it is not currently on your PBS station we suggest you contact your local PBS programming director and let them know it is available free to all PBS stations. You may take STAR GAZER off satellite for personal use, classroom use, astronomy club use, etc. without written permission.

Satellite feed info:

GE 3 - PBS Transponder 512

4/26/99 10:30 - 11:30 am Eastern time (5 shows)

5/27/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)

6/25/99 10:30 - 11:00 am Eastern time (4 shows)


Star Gazer is also available from NASA CORE

A videotape of the current month is available from NASA CORE for $16.00

plus $6.00 shipping (within the U.S). Please send a VISA, MasterCard,

check, money order or an official school purchase order to the address

below:

 

Lorain County JVS - NASA CORE

15181 Route 58 South

Oberlin, OH 44074

440/775-1400

FAX 440/775-1460

nasaco@leeca.esu.k12.oh.us

http://spacelink.nasa.gov/CORE



Notice : These are working drafts of the scripts for STAR GAZER.
Changes may well be made as production requires.


 

 

STAR GAZER

Episode #99-22


1121st Show

To Be Aired : Monday 5/31/99 through Sunday 6/6/99

"Awesome Arcturus :

Find It Now Before It's Gone"

Horkheimer: Greetings, greetings, fellow star gazers, and as you regular viewers know, in the past two months I've been asking you to compare the bright orange star Arcturus with bright orange Mars because their colors are so similar and they've been in the same part of the sky together. But although their colors are almost identical at this time, there the similarity ends. Let me show you: O.K., we've got our skies set up for just after it gets dark out. Now as you may recall the easiest way to find Arcturus is to find the Big Dipper first in the north, shoot an arrow through the Dipper's handle and the first star it will land on is bright orange Arcturus. Continuing that line you'll next land on Spica, the brightest star of Virgo and only a couple of degrees away you'll see brilliant orange Mars. And before Mars gets much dimmer, because it is rapidly moving away from Earth now, compare Mars' and Arcturus' colors because they are absolutely wonderful when they are in the same part of the sky.

Now whereas 4 thousand mile wide planet Mars is always changing its place in the heavens relative to the stars, 18 million mile wide Arcturus always seems fixed in the same place relative to the other stars. But it is not! In fact, Edmond Halley, for whom Halley's Comet is named, discovered almost 3 hundred years ago that Arcturus had changed its position from its location in much older star charts which gave Halley the idea that perhaps some stars were not quite as fixed as once thought. And he was right because we have since actually calculated how fast Arcturus is moving and in what direction. In fact, it is moving through space at an incredible 90 miles per second in the direction of Spica and at that unbelievable rate it will change its position relative to the other stars by one Full Moon width every 900 years, and when it comes to stars, that's a lot!

Now while our ancient ancestors saw most of the stars we still see today, Arcturus wasn't always visible. It first became visible to human eyes only half a million years ago and it's been speeding closer to us ever since. In fact, whereas ancient records listed Arcturus as the 6th brightest star in the heavens, in our time it is now the 4th brightest. Indeed we are now seeing Arcturus as bright as any human ever will because right now it is at its closest to our Sun and its family of planets. And on the cosmic time scale it will soon speed away into the void forever and will disappear from sight in a mere one half million years. So catch Arcturus now while you can because if you hang around for another 500 thousand years it will be gone. A brilliant stellar player enjoying only a brief appearance on the cosmic stage of time which should remind us how fascinating it really is to Keep Looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here


Star Gazer Minute

#99-22 M

5/31/99 thru 6/6/99

"Find Arcturus Before It's Gone!"

 

Greetings, I'm Jack Horkheimer with this week's "Star Gazer Minute". You know many people believe that all the stars are fixed in position relative to one another but such is not the case with Arcturus which you can find throughout June by shooting an imaginary arrow through the handle of the Big Dipper. In fact Arcturus is moving at the incredible rate of 90 miles per second and changes its position by one full Moon width every 900 years. And whereas ancient records listed Arcturus as the 6th brightest star, it has since moved so close to us it is now the 4th brightest. But not for long. It will soon recede and in a mere half million years will disappear from sight altogether. So catch it now while you can which is easy if you Keep Looking Up!

For graphics for this script (Click) Here

 


Don't miss the cartoon version of

'STAR GAZER' in each monthly issue of

 

To Subscribe

(only $26.95 for 9 issues)

contact

'ODYSSEY'

30 Grove Street

Suite C

Peterborough, NH 03458

or Click Here


* This week's Sky At A Glance and Planet Roundup from Sky & Telescope.
This week's Sky At A Glance displays current week only
Starry Night Deluxe was used to produce this episode of Star Gazer






[SmilinJack]Return to the [STAR GAZER Main Page]